Archives for posts with tag: Jemez Mountains
Abrigo Peak (far left) and Redondo Peak (right) seen from the road up to the rim


The Valle Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) occupies a tremendous bowl cupped by the Jemez Mountains. One and a quarter million years ago a large volcano underwent a super-eruption and left this vast footprint behind. In subsequent years the slopes mellowed, forests cycled through fire and regrowth (fire now ascendent) while broad montane grasslands open to wide-sky vistas. 

There are some designated horse-riding trails in the caldera but few hiking trails. The rule for hikers seems to be, “pick a direction and go”. For that reason your hike will likely differ from the stroll described here. My target was to get to the high point on the Caldera rim. The plan was to cross the Caldera, hike up to the rim and camp, summit Chicoma Peak on the second day and return to the trailhead on the third. Some dry creek beds and monsoon weather rubbished this plan, but that is a trivial complaint. Being in the Valle Caldera is its own splendid reward. Go.

Edit: a reader has pointed out a recently published guide to the VCNP. Could be useful although I haven’t seen it yet. A description cab be found here: My thanks to mtngrrl!

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Alamo Canyon


The Yapashi Ancestral Pueblo site lies on the Pajarito plateau, a gigantic mass of tuff that arose from eruptions of the Valles Caldera. The resulting territory is pretty flat save for erosion-carved, steep-sided canyons. These cleave the plateau into skinny protreros. It’s a southwestern archetype: sun-dominated by day, cold at night and fire swept in season. The narrow and pine-dominated canyons contrast with the broad and juniper-dominated mesas. The flat Pajarito plateau opens to the soaring Jemez mountains. There are easy ambles on the protreros and arduous ascents from the canyons. The Tyuonyi Ancestral Pueblo at the beginning includes reconstructions and is much visited.  The Yapashi Ancestral Pueblo at the end is untouched and utterly lonesome. Grab your gear and go.

This isn’t a good hike for very young hikers or those with strong acrophobia. You’ll need water.

Driving Directions:

  • From Interstate-25 (I-25) take exit 276 for NM-599 Santa Fe Relief Route (also signed for Madrid, Los Alamos, Espanola).
  • After 0.1 miles, at the end of the ramp, turn left onto NM-599
  • After 13.3 miles, at a fork, go left onto the ramp for US-84 N/US-285 N Espanola
  • After 0.5 miles merge onto US-84/US-285
  • After 13.5 miles take the exit for NM-502 West (signed for Los Alamos)
  • After 0.1 miles, at the end of the ramp, turn left onto NM-502
  • After 11.4 miles, at a fork, stay right to go onto NM-4 signed for Bandelier National Monument
  • After 12.7 miles (see note) turn left onto Entrance Road into Bandelier National Park.
  • After 3.0 miles (within sight of the Visitor Center parking) turn left onto a road signed for Cottonwood Picnic Area
  • After 0.2 miles, park at the trailhead (look for a trailhead sign near to a water fountain).

The National Monument is popular and there is limited parking in the bottom of Frijole Canyon. The Park has a shuttle service on NM-4 in White Rock, eight miles from the park’s entrance. The shuttle is currently running from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m and during those hours it’s mandatory. (There are a few exceptions, such as for backpackers). During off-shuttle hours you can drive straight to the park – an unusually reasonable parking solution!


The mighty Camry facing down the southwest wall of Frijoles canyon.

Entrance to the park costs $20.00 per car. There are numerous allowances for people arriving by motorcycle, bike or in organized groups, as well as for the various passes (e.g. military or senior passes). See the park’s Basic Info page for up-to-date information. This is a super high-service trailhead: rest rooms, potable water and trash receptacles are available. There is a Visitor Center and a gift shop/snack bar as well.


  • lowest elevation: 5895 feet
  • highest elevation: 6670 feet
  • net elevation: 775 feet (but see note, below)
  • distance: 6.1 miles (one way)
  • maps: USGS Frijoles quadrangle

“Net elevation” is just the difference between the highest point and the lowest point. The total elevation gain is well over 3000 feet, due to repeated drops into several canyons.

Hike Description:

View from Frijoles Canyon rim to the Tyuonyi talus houses

From the trailhead ascend past the trail sign and come to a signed junction. To your right is a gently rising traverse up the southwestern wall of Frijoles Canyon. Straight ahead is a steep and heavily switch-backed ascent of the wall. For reasons unknown I chose the direct ascent. It has advantages, the view down to the large circular pueblo of Tyuonyi on the canyon floor is impressive. Against that you have to balance the wear on your reserves – there is much and more too see ahead of you.

Pinyon pine, juniper and the San Miguel Mountains

The direct ascent will bring you to a junction with the Frijoles Canyon Rim Trail, turn right to travel northwest. More than 60% of Bandelier National Monument was burned during the colossal Las Conchas fire in 2011. That fire did not seem to reach this area, which is grassy terrain,  populated with stands of single-seed juniper, pinyon pine and the occasional alligator juniper. The trail stays close to the rim until, at 1.3 miles from the trailhead, you come to a junction where the “gently ascending” tread from the canyon bottom comes in from your right. Turn left onto the Middle Alamo Trail (signed for Yapashi) and begin traversing the first mesa.

At rim of the first canyon on the Middle Alamo Trail

At 1.5 miles from the trailhead begin your first descent into a small canyon. Tall pines appear in this protected niche. The tread is an exemplar of trail construction. Heavy rocks have been lugged, levered and shoved into staircase formation. Trail workers dealt with steep and exposed bedrock by carving steps into the rock. In some spots the teams constructed huge rock walls so they could throw stair steps through the air! During the Great Depression the Civilian Conservation Corps was busy here at the park, it may be that the numerous rock steps and well-worn wooden water bars are their enduring work.

Terrain recovering from the Las Conchas fire with San Miguel Mountains on the horizon.

As you depart this canyon signs of fire become unmistakable. The burned snags have almost all toppled so there is relatively small danger of windfall on the hike. Much of the scorched earth has transformed into a pleasant grassland. Some of the waterways in the mesa-top bowls look like engineered canals – flooding has carved unnaturally straight stream beds going directly down the fall line. Looking west across this open terrain you will see the San Miguel mountains in the adjacent Dome Wilderness. Rabbit Hill is the small, bell-shaped outlier to the north (to your right, not in the photo above). At the south end is a long ridge reaching to the high, flat-topped summit of St. Peter’s Dome. In the center is the sharp, cone-shaped Boundary Peak. Just north of the Boundary Peak is a broad summit that may be Peralta Ridge.

Entrance to Lommis Canyon

Enjoy the easy rambling as you contour around a small height of land, Corral Hill. At 2.5 miles from the trailhead you will come to the rim of Lummis Canyon (signed). Drop 120 brisk feet into the canyon, turn downstream (to your left) for about 300 feet while watching for cairns, then enjoy a couple relatively long switchbacks up and out, back onto the mesa. Allow a moment of regret for having to leave those shady pines behind. The aligator juniper on the canyon rim do not provide much shade.  Be grateful for the persistent good work of the CCC – the trail is everywhere obvious and beautifully maintained.

Rock ribbed rollercoaster trail straight down to the bed of Alamo Canyon

Here the trail heads southwest and then south seeking to follow the contour of a broad, open and shallow bowl set into the plateau. A single stream runs gun-barrel straight down the center. At 3.6 miles come to the rim of Alamo Canyon and consider the etymology for the word “precipitous“. At another canyon in Arizona the Park Service is famous for reminding people that “down is optional, up is mandatory”. Is your party OK with a 500 foot drop  in less than a third of a mile and an equal rise on return? If so then you can launch yourself into the recent geological past. The dark upper layer of crumbly tuff is from the Valle Caldera’s most recent eruption, about 1.2 million years ago. The trail doesn’t switchback so much as writhe down this rock. Fortunately, every inch is covered with rock steps – trail building from the age of heroes. Eventually you will get down to the top of the white band of crumbly rock – tuff from an eruption 1.6 million years ago. You’re not done yet, but at least the eagles are mostly flying above you. Down, down, down and reach the tops of tall Ponderosa. Down a little more and, finally, canyon bottom!

Ponderosa bole in front of the southwest wall of Alamo Canyon

It is just plain gorgeous in the canyon. The pines offer shade. The numerous boulders offer generous seating. The bed is generally sandy, with occasional rocky stretches and there may be log jams to negotiate. Obsidian gleams darkly in the stream bed. The white tuff rises spectacularly on all sides. Have a bite to eat and get those photos taken. Also, take careful note of where the trail entered. On this date it was marked by a tall cairn, but you want to be sure to recognize the spot on return. Head downstream for 0.4 miles looking for the tread departing to the west (to your right). The departure point is on a clear path currently marked with cairns. It  leaves the sandy canyon bed to cross a grassy inside-bend and dives into brush. The angle is very shallow at first  but stay with it and the angle will increase dramatically in just 100 more feet.

Final approach to the Yapashi site along the rim of a small canyon.

Up you go. You will need to stop, often, but only because you need to take photographs. The stops have nothing to do with the sweat soaking your shirt or the way you seem to be panting for breath. Up past the ponderosa, above the white tuff, above the darker tuff, and seemingly by magic the rim appears. Easy. The Miguel Mountains come back into sight as the tread bends due west.

Yapashi ruins – possibly a pit house

There is one last, small canyon to traverse but as a now-experienced canyoneer the hundred foot drop and rise will seem barely worth noticing. On the far rim come to a signed junction with the West Alamo Trail. Turn northwest (to your right) where the Middle Alamo Trail follows the western rim of this last canyon. The trail rises steadily to a point 5.5 miles from the trailhead where it levels markedly. Here you will find the Yapashi Ancestral Pueblo. The site is a mosaic of frost-toppled stone walls and the ground is a matrix of tiny pot shards and obsidian flakes. This is a national treasure, so please take nothing but photos and leave nothing but footprints (and go as light on the footprints as you can).

Shrine of the Stone Lions

Push on just a little further, to the signed junction with the Stone Lions Trail at 6.1 miles from the trailhead. Here you will find an ancient building with partial walls that enclose two engraved boulders, much eroded. These are the trail’s namesake lions.  This is an active shrine, treat it as you would any place considered sacred.  There is no sign of water. Have a bite to eat and try to work out why those busy builders of the fourteenth century would chose this particular canyon rim for their work. Return the way you came. As you near the trailhead consider taking the gentler descent into Frijoles Canyon. It is kinder on the knees and deposits you in the canyon close to the Long House, which is worth exploring.


Closeup of the impressive Tyuonyi circular pueblo

On a mild, late-June day I went through three liters and really wished I had more. The sun can be pretty ferocious here. Hat, sunscreen and high-SPF lip balm are in order and you may want to hike in a long-sleeved shirt. This hike might be best reserved for a cold season expedition.

A real concern is the potential for flash flooding. The Alamo Canyon has its headwaters on the very rim of Valle Caldera; room to develop a large head of water. The log jams in the canyon bottom testify to the terrific power of such floods. The Park Service counsels hikers not to try to cross high waters, which seems like good advice.

Despite the park’s well known popularity and despite the fact that this jaunt took place on a Saturday I did not see one other person from the time I left the bottom of Frijole Canyon. Be aware that the tread can be a lonely one.


The National Park Service site is a trove of information about Bandelier National Monument. In addition to current fees it has alerts, introductions to the Monument’s archeology and geology as well as services information.

The My Backyard site has a detailed trip report with numerous photos  that include exceptional detail for the Stone Lions site. The report is from 2008, before the Las Conchas fire. It is interesting to see how desert-like and open much of the terrain was even before the fire. Evidence of stress in the pines was noted but the dead trees were being attributed to drought and beetle infestation at that time.

Paul Mags has a 2014 report of a backpacking trip up Frijoles Canyon and the back by way of the Stone Lions and Yapashi sites. The photography is excellent and reveals the terrible damage done by the fire and subsequent flooding at the upper end of Frijoles Canyon.




Cerro Pedernal from the south

Cerro Pedernal from the south

Cerro Pedernal (“flint hill“) arises on the northern flank of the Jemez Mountains, northwest of Santa Fe. The top is a ridge that seems bowstring straight. From the ridge ends (southeast or the northwest) Pedernal’s profile is horn-shaped. From the ridge sides (northeast or the southwest) Pedernal’s profile is flat-topped. The hike described here begins with a road ramble up to high meadows, scrambles the ridge’s debris cone, climbs a short class-4 break in the cliff face and finishes with a stroll to the high point. If you have a high clearance vehicle you can shorten the road ramble considerably. Tracks in the road prove that drivers with very high clearance vehicles and steady nerves can drive all the way to the meadows (at the cost of making the hike absurdly short). This is a beautiful place.

Driving Directions:

  • From I-25 going north from Albuquerque, take exit 276 for NM-599 (Madrid/Los Alamos/Espanola)
  • At the end of the ramp, go left onto NM-599
  • After about 13 miles NM-599 forks at an intersection with with US 84/US 285. Take the long left fork to merge onto US 84-N.
  • After 52.7 more miles, go left onto NM 96.
  • After 10.9 miles (just past a cattle guard), go left onto Forest Road 100.
  • After 5.3 miles, go left onto Forest Road 160
  • Drive on FR-160 until you no longer comfortable with the road. In a soft-suspended car that point may arrive in just 0.5 miles. Find a place to pull off the road and park.

An afternoon shot of the the junction of FR-100 and FR-160. If you double-click the picture enlarges and the small sign (right of the open door) becomes visible

An afternoon shot of the the junction of FR-100 and FR-160. If you double-click the picture enlarges and the small sign (right of the open door) becomes visible

It is easy to miss the turn to FR-160. A very small sign has been posted, just after the turn. This sign consists of a two-inch wide slat, brown, and about three feet tall. “160” is written out in small (inch-and-half or so) numerals. A bush is growing around the sign. Give the photo on the right a close look and watch your odometer.

Google Maps suggest that you should go 5.8 miles on FR-100. This will take you to another canyon further south. It is broad and grassy, with a truck-track ascending the canyon floor. It is a splendidly pleasant spot, but current experience does not recommend this southerly canyon as a launch point for Cerro Pedernal. Find FR-160!.


02 trailhead

De facto trailhead

The trailhead is going to be a wide spot along FR 160. There will be no services. The photo on the left shows the mighty Camry parked about a half mile up FR-160, just below a short stretch where the road surface carries an uncomfortable number of football-sized rocks. High clearance vehicles will be able to go much, much further.


  • Starting Elevation: 8120 feet
  • Ending Elevation: 9862 feet
  • Net Gain: 1740 feet
  • Distance: 7.2 miles round trip
  • Map: Cerro Pedernal spans the east edge of the Youngsville quadrangle and the west edge of the Canones quadrangle. Most of the hike is on the Youngsville map, including all the scrambling. Both maps are recommended if you want to identify some of the surrounding mountains.

Hike Description:

Peek at the southern end of Cerro Pedernal  from Temolime Canyon

Peek at the southern end of Cerro Pedernal from Temolime Canyon

Walk up Temolime Canyon on Forest Road 160. On this date there were fading Catepillar tracks in the road bed, suggesting that this portion of the road has been recently maintained. Even so, there are many sharp little crests and protruding rocks that decorate the road. Poor terrain for soft-suspended family sedans. Truck owners and four wheelers will wonder how anyone could complain. The walk up the canyon is easy and the deep shade provided by tall Ponderosa is very enjoyable.

View of the wall protecting the mesa top, can you spot the cave?

View of the cliff protecting the ridge top, can you spot the cave?

After 0.8 miles from the car (about 1.3 miles from the FR-100/FR-160 junction) the road turns left, crosses the canyon bed and deep-gouged mud holes (now dry). Stay on the road as it ascends to Cerro Pedernal. Bulldozer tracks are still visible and the road bed is still fairly good. Small gullies are forming and there are occasional stretches of loose rock on the steeper stretches of road. Those on foot (or bike) won’t notice. Instead, peer through the trees at a remarkable view of the south face of Cerro Pedernal. Close to the middle of the cliff face there is a dark cave. You are aiming for a break in the curtain wall that lies to the left (west) of this cave. You will surmount the wall by way of that “weakness”.

Flambouyant snail shell on the debris field below the mesa wall.

Flambouyant snail shell on the cliff wall.

At about 1.1 miles from the canyon crossing you will come to the construction project that may have been the rationale for bringing heavy equipment up FR 160. On your left you will pass a number of earth embankments thrown across a broad waterway to create tanks. On this date the tanks held no water (despite a good monsoon and remnants of Hurricane Odile). Perhaps the tanks are intended to soften the flow of snow melt or to offer cattle a high-country watering hole in the spring.

"End-on" view of Pedernal as an afternoon thunderstorm approaches

“End-on” view of Pedernal from NM-96, taken as an afternoon thunderstorm approaches

Just past these newly built tanks the road makes a hard right, leaving the waterway. The road becomes steep, washed out and covered with a “pavement” of fist-sized stones. A small side road comes in from the drainage and most drivers will want to leave their high-clearance vehicles on the side road. Tire tracks on the road prove that some drivers do bring their vehicles up higher. Even if you have the vehicle to do the job, you will want to question the value of further driving. It could leave you feeling cheated of the hike. The forest – mostly Ponderosa pines in this region – is too pretty to simply drive past.

A "side view" of Pedernal as it embraces the storm.

A “side view” of Pedernal as it embraces the storm about mid-afternoon.

The deep forest starts to thin and the road forks at 1.6 miles from the canyon crossing. One fork goes straight uphill. The other bends to the left and is the course described here. As the grade gentles, come to the first of a series of meadows. There are great views of the summit block. Continue on the road through greater and lesser meadows with views of the mountains to the south and west. The road nears to within 30 feet of a rib on the debris field. Leave the road and begin an ascent of the rib.

Boulder field at the foot of the mesa wall. The photo shows the wall as it tapers to the east.

Boulder field at the foot of the cliff. The photo shows the cliff face as it tapers to the east.

There are no official trails to the summit. Instead, scramble up the debris field in a forest of piñon pines. These are much shorter than the Ponderosa below and views open to the ridge from time to time. Just a short way above the meadows a broad thicket of scrub oak forms a determined barrier. Use this thicket as a convenient excuse for lateraling eastward (right, looking uphill) across the face of the debris cone. Eventually the thicket thins and a renewed upward assault becomes possible. For some reason the trees above you always seem thinner to the west and there is relentless Pacific-ward temptation. Try to resist. The footing on this approach is not bad and the task of dodging piñon branches and tap-dancing around around exposed juniper roots is just the price of admission.

07 horz view of crux

View as you near the “weakness” in the cliff surrounding the ridge top. Note the leaning log and the rubble pile a the base of the wall.

Eventually the trees end. Arrive at the boulder strewn domain below the foot of the cliff. Have you traversed too far east, or did you rise too quickly in the west? Where is that cave? The only way to tell is explore. Try climbing to the foot of the cliff. Along much of the wall there is a discernible tread where earlier explorers have searched for a route. If you are moving eastward on this path, watch for a point where the path squeezes between a juniper and the wall. Just beyond this point is a cairn and a stout old pole (maybe three inches thick) leaning against the wall. Regrettably, an old spray-painted arrow remains on the wall as well. Spray paint is not necessary in this place. You have arrived at the crux.

View of the crux move, looking up from the rubble pile at the base of the crux.

View of the crux move, looking up from the rubble pile at the base of the crux.

The way up is purely vertical for the first 10 or 12 feet. There are “bombproof” hand holds and foot placements. Still, a 12 foot fall would be a nasty thing to receive. Folks who are not familiar with basic climbing moves and those who are acrophobic may want to mark this the high point of the ascent. There are great views and, to the east, a cave to explore. Others may want to make a trial run without the nuisance of a pack.

A classic "knife edge" path with steep gradients to eather side.

A classic “knife edge” path with steep gradients to eather side.


Above the climb the grade eases, but the tread is narrow and steep. The hand-holds provided by the wall remain welcome. The tread switchbacks continuously up to the ridge top. There is a cairn where you reach the ridge line (and marking your departure point on descent). The top is a  knife-edge ridge – a few feet to either side there is a steep falloff. Turn left at the cairn and ascend the short distance to the top.

10 Abaquiu Lake & Colorado

View north from the summit to Abiquiu Lake and the distant mountains of Colorado

The summit is open. To the north lies the Chama Basin, host to Lake Abiquiu and the Ghost Ranch. The view extends beyond the basin to Colorado. To the south and southwest are the Jemez Mountains. The northwest is dominated by two large table lands: Mesa Prieta and Mesa de Los Viejos flank the Rio Chama. Sign the summit register (inside the small summit cairn). Take note of the three separate USGS summit markers, and ready yourself for the descent.

After down-climbing the wall, you might turn west and follow the tread at the foot of the wall. In less than 100 feet you will come to a point where the tread drops sharply and hits something that might be a gully or that might be a trail. In fact, it is a boot-beaten trail, but not one that can be regarded with any affection. It descends with a just a few scant switchbacks on steep terrain. The footing is loose and rubble strewn. The “trail” itself is turning into an unwelcome scar on the side of the mountain. Consider, instead, a return that essentially follows the ascent path. It would be much more fun. On return to the meadows, find your way back to the road and follow it back to the trailhead.


Author on summit, Jemez Mountains in background

Author on summit, Jemez Mountains in background, trouble in the sky.

♦It is not quite yet “the season when thunder sleeps”, at least not Northern New Mexico. It has been a productive monsoon season and perhaps that should have warned me to take greater care with regard to weather. On descent I met two hard-charging young women who were taking mountain bikes all the way to the meadows and had an eye on summiting. It was then that we heard the first, and still distant, grumble of “weather”. Although they still had a couple hours before the heavy rains began, I hope they didn’t push to the top. As the photos show, the storms closed in quickly that afternoon.

♦Two liters of water were plenty for this date. I did not see any running water on this trip.

♦Consider staying off the “gully trail” that rises straight up the debris cone towards the cave. As described above, the gully trail is unpleasant on descent and others report that it is disagreeable and exhausting on ascent (see links below). Just by spreading out we might be able to minimize the damage to the wilderness.


♦Mary Caperton Morton, writing on her site, has several photos of a winter ascent together with a rave review for the climb up Cerro Pedernal. I’m indebted to her for launching an interest in this mountain.

♦Edd F, on SummitPost.Org, has an overview and a route description, both of which are very useful. I have to agree with his assertion that the climbing moves are daunting enough to merit a class 4 rating.

♦For those interested in the geology, Shari Kelly writing for the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resource has a great “tour” writeup.

♦Gerry Roach has a very detailed writeup of the climb at Summit Sight. In that description the climb through the cliffs is assessed as class 3 (people will disagree on ratings). The photography is great. In particular, check out a useful photo of a climber on the crux pitch.